Tuesday, April 12, 2011

Jesus' illustration of the Unfit House Manager

Luke 16:1-15

I have been asked about the meaning of these verses. 
They read:

"1 Then he went on to say also to the disciples: “A certain man was rich and he had a steward, and this one was accused to him as handling his goods wastefully.
2 So he called him and said to him, ‘What is this I hear about you? Hand in the account of your stewardship, for you can no longer manage the house.’ 
3 Then the steward said to himself, ‘What am I to do, seeing that my master will take the stewardship away from me? I am not strong enough to dig, I am ashamed to beg. 
4 Ah! I know what I shall do, so that, when I am put out of the stewardship, people will receive me into their homes.’ 
5 And calling to him each one of the debtors of his master he proceeded to say to the first, ‘How much are you owing my master?’ 
6 He said, ‘A hundred bath measures of olive oil.’ He said to him, ‘Take your written agreement back and sit down and quickly write fifty.’ 
7 Next, he said to another one, ‘Now you, how much are you owing?’ He said, ‘A hundred cor measures of wheat.’ He said to him, ‘Take your written agreement back and write eighty.’ 
8 And his master commended the steward, though unrighteous, because he acted with practical wisdom; for the sons of this system of things are wiser in a practical way toward their own generation than the sons of the light are.
9 “Also, I say to YOU, Make friends for yourselves by means of the unrighteous riches, so that, when such fail, they may receive YOU into the everlasting dwelling places. 
10 The person faithful in what is least is faithful also in much, and the person unrighteous in what is least is unrighteous also in much. 
11 Therefore, if YOU have not proved yourselves faithful in connection with the unrighteous riches, who will entrust YOU with what is true? 
12 And if YOU have not proved yourselves faithful in connection with what is another’s, who will give YOU what is for yourselves? 
13 No house servant can be a slave to two masters; for, either he will hate the one and love the other, or he will stick to the one and despise the other. YOU cannot be slaves to God and to riches.”
14 Now the Pharisees, who were money lovers, were listening to all these things, and they began to sneer at him.
15 Consequently he said to them: “YOU are those who declare yourselves righteous before men, but God knows YOUR hearts; because what is lofty among men is a disgusting thing in God’s sight".

To understand this illustration, we need to interpret the meaning of it's symbolic elements.

These are the quoted words Jesus used:

The Wasteful Steward
the account of the stewardship
the house
the debtors
practical wisdom
sons of this system of things
sons of light
friends for yourselves
unrighteous riches
when such fail
they may receive you
everlasting dwelling places
entrust you with what is true
faithful with another's riches
what is lofty among men is disgusting in God's sight

With each of these explained by means of scriptural interpretation, the story and it's meaning become clearer.

This unfit Steward takes us back to Luke 12:41-59...

41 Then Peter said: “Lord, are you saying this illustration to us or also to all?” 
42 And the Lord said: “Who really is the faithful steward, the discreet one, whom his master will appoint over his body of attendants to keep giving them their measure of food supplies at the proper time? 
43 Happy is that slave, if his master on arriving finds him doing so! 
44  I tell YOU truthfully, He will appoint him over all his belongings. 
45 But if ever that slave should say in his heart, ‘My master delays coming,’ and should start to beat the menservants and the maidservants, and to eat and drink and get drunk,
46 the master of that slave will come on a day that he is not expecting [him] and in an hour that he does not know, and he will punish him with the greatest severity and assign him a part with the unfaithful ones. 
47 Then that slave that understood the will of his master but did not get ready or do in line with his will will be beaten with many strokes. 
48 But the one that did not understand and so did things deserving of strokes will be beaten with few. Indeed, everyone to whom much was given, much will be demanded of him; and the one whom people put in charge of much, they will demand more than usual of him.
49 “I came to start a fire on the earth, and what more is there for me to wish if it has already been lighted? 
50 Indeed, I have a baptism with which to be baptized, and how I am being distressed until it is finished! 
51 Do YOU imagine I came to give peace on the earth? No, indeed, I tell YOU, but rather division.
52For from now on there will be five in one house divided, three against two and two against three. 
53 They will be divided, father against son and son against father, mother against daughter and daughter against [her] mother, mother-in-law against [her] daughter-in-law and daughter-in-law against [her] mother-in-law.”
54 Then he went on to say also to the crowds: “When YOU see a cloud rising in western parts, at once YOU say, ‘A storm is coming,’ and it turns out so. 
55 And when YOU see that a south wind is blowing, YOU say, ‘There will be a heat wave,’ and it occurs. 
56 Hypocrites, YOU know how to examine the outward appearance of earth and sky, but how is it YOU do not know how to examine this particular time? 
57 Why do YOU not judge also for yourselves what is righteous? 
58 For example, when you are going with your adversary at law to a ruler, get to work, while on the way, to rid yourself of the dispute with him, that he may never hale you before the judge, and the judge deliver you to the court officer, and the court officer throw you into prison. 
59 I tell you, You will certainly not get out from there until you pay over the last small coin of very little value.”

Woah! It may seem that Jesus is bouncing around different unrelated subjects. 
But let us see how they all relate...

The unfit steward is mentioned in verse Luke 12:45. We see him contending with other household slaves. Jesus highlights the results of this contention in Luke 12:49,51,52,53... 
The various slaves of the Master and the food they provide will cause divisions within households.
Luke 12:54,56 tells us to recognize the "particular time" when this division is taking place between the steward and the domestics, as well as it's divisive effect on others. 
This goes along with Luke 16:2, when the Master says to the Steward, 
"‘What is this I hear about you? Hand in the account of your stewardship, for you can no longer manage the house.’".

Jesus, the Master, is inspecting his slaves during his presence/parousia. He sees the discord the Steward is causing. He has heard the plaintiff cries of the prayers of those under the Steward. 

Accordingly, at Luke 12:57, Jesus tries to mercifully appeal to the Steward, "Why do you not judge also for yourselves what is righteous?" 
The Steward is able to "judge what is righteous" toward those under him; in that he judges them unworthy of power over others. This is righteous and true (Mark 10:42,43).Yet Jesus asks, "Why do you not judge also for yourselves what is righteous?" Why does the Steward not follow the same righteous standard that he judges others by? No, instead he hypocritically indulges in unrighteousness; the "unrighteous riches" of such power (1Cor.4:8).
1Cor.4:8 reads:
" YOU men already have YOUR fill, do YOU? YOU are rich already, are YOU? YOU have begun ruling as kings without us, have YOU? And I wish indeed that YOU had begun ruling as kings, that we also might rule with YOU as kings".

Jesus' advice and direction at Luke 16:2-7, is the way in which the steward may do better. If the steward works out an agreement with the other slaves he is ruling over, then he will avoid facing the full consequences of the Master's disapproval. The things the debtors owe the Master, are "olive oil#" and "wheat*". These symbols for holy spirit# and God's word* have meaning, as we will later see.

Luke 12:58, 59 reads:
"For example, when you are going with your adversary at law to a ruler, get to work, while on the way, to rid yourself of the dispute with him, that he may never hale you before the judge, and the judge deliver you to the court officer, and the court officer throw you into prison. I tell you, You will certainly not get out from there until you pay over the last small coin of very little value.”

Note what Jesus said about this at Matt.18:31-35:
"When, therefore, his fellow slaves saw the things that had happened, they became very much grieved, and they went and made clear to their master all the things that had happened. Then his master summoned him and said to him, ‘Wicked slave, I canceled all that debt for you, when you entreated me. Ought you not, in turn, to have had mercy on your fellow slave, as I also had mercy on you?’ 
With that his master, provoked to wrath, delivered him to the jailers, until he should pay back all that was owing. In like manner my heavenly Father will also deal with YOU if YOU do not forgive each one his brother from YOUR hearts.”

This explains for us Luke 16:5-7: 
Here we see the Steward wisely following Jesus' practical advice by being merciful and kind to those whom they have power and authority over. He needs to do this as soon as he realizes that he is in trouble with the Master. Before the Master returns/arrives to discharge and punish this steward (1Cor.11:26; Matt.25:19,31) he still has a chance to "judge...what is righteous" by treating those under his authority with mercy, kindness, and mutual respect. 

So these "unrighteous riches" are not literal monies. Jehovah God has little interest in such material things. Jesus made this principle clear, at Matt.22:19-21:
Jesus said, "Show me the head tax coin.” They brought him a de·nar´i·us. And he said to them: “Whose image and inscription is this?” They said: “Caesar’s.” Then he said to them: “Pay back, therefore, Caesar’s things to Caesar, but God’s things to God.”
This does not say, "Pay back Caesar's things to God"! 
He distinguishes literal money as separate from what we owe God. What things do we owe Jehovah God?

Matthew 12:7 reads:
"However, if YOU had understood what this means, ‘I want mercy, and not sacrifice,’ YOU would not have condemned the guiltless ones."

Micah 6:8 reads:
"...And what is Jehovah asking back from you but to exercise justice and to love kindness and to be modest in walking with your God?"

Paying back God's things to God, means not money, but rather the exercising of mercy, justice, humility, righteousness and kindness. These are God's things, in that they originate with Him. As His Sons, we must imitate Him...

"...prove yourselves sons of YOUR Father who is in the heavens, since he makes his sun rise upon wicked people and good and makes it rain upon righteous people and unrighteous...YOU must accordingly be perfect, as YOUR heavenly Father is perfect." Matt.5:45,48

If we do imitate Him in these loving ways, we are paying God's things to God (Prov.19:17).

These unrighteous riches mean power and authority over others (1Cor.4:8). Why are these unrighteous?

Mark 10:42-45 reads:
"But Jesus, after calling them to him, said to them: “YOU know that those who appear to be ruling the nations lord it over them and their great ones wield authority over them. This is not the way among YOU; but whoever wants to become great among YOU must be YOUR minister, and whoever wants to be first among YOU must be the slave of all. For even the Son of man came, not to be ministered to, but to minister and to give his soul a ransom in exchange for many.”

So this unfit Steward has been oppressive to his fellow slaves, abusing his authority and causing them to complain. He has exercised his authority, not as a lesser minister and slave to his fellows, but as an unforgiving holder and enforcer of debt. This dominating, or "lording it over", is an "unrighteous (1Pet.5:3) richness".

This Steward is then imitating the religious leaders of Jesus' day... Matthew 23:23,28:

23 “Woe to YOU, scribes and Pharisees, hypocrites! because YOU give the tenth of the mint and the dill and the cumin, but YOU have disregarded the weightier matters of the Law, namely, justice and mercy and faithfulness. These things it was binding to do, yet not to disregard the other things.
28 In that way YOU also, outwardly indeed, appear righteous to men, but inside YOU are full of hypocrisy and lawlessness.

So Jesus is warning the Steward of his house that would be present during this system of things. He had better not imitate the Scribes' and Pharisees' abuse of power.
If that Steward should find himself in this disapproved situation, Jesus advises him to have "practical wisdom" by making friends by means of the power he yet has....by showing mercy to those he has brought into debt with the Master.

How are these other slaves indebted to the Master? Jesus has given them spiritual provisions [holy spirit (olive oil), and understanding of God's word (wheat seed)]. They need to settle this debt with the Master, by being able to invest these provisions (Matt.25:14,15,20) for the Master's profit. This "wasteful steward" does not allow them to settle this debt with the Master. He will not accept the profit they have gained by working with the Master's provisions. 

Why should he reconsider in accord with practical wisdom?

Because however this Steward decides to treat those in his charge, this is the way that he will be treated by the returned Master.
This wasteful steward decides to reject the new provisions from his fellow anointed ones. Even worse, he decides to judge and punish his fellow slaves because they value what the Master has given them...

“Stop judging that YOU may not be judged; for with what judgment YOU are judging, YOU will be judged; and with the measure that YOU are measuring out, they will measure out to YOU. (Matt.7:1,2)

Matthew 18:34,35:
"Then his master summoned him and said to him, ‘Wicked slave, I canceled all that debt for you, when you entreated me. Ought you not, in turn, to have had mercy on your fellow slave, as I also had mercy on you?’
With that his master, provoked to wrath, delivered him to the jailers, until he should pay back all that he owed. In like manner my heavenly Father will also deal with YOU if YOU do not forgive each one his brother from YOUR hearts.”

This wicked steward judges and mercilessly punishes his fellows who are trying to pay the Master what they owe him. (Luke 12:45) The Steward should be helping them to discharge their debt, as the Master has enabled the Steward to do.
All the slaves are indebted to the Master. How? The Master has given them spiritual provisions. All slaves must repay him, by shining the light they have received. 
The Master has allowed the Steward to discharge his debt, by giving him the power to shine his own portion. 
Yet the wicked steward does not allow the other slaves to discharge their debt. The steward does not allow the other slaves, to shine their light also; and thereby discharge their own debt to the Master.
Jesus advises the Steward to "make friends" with his fellow debtors, by sharing his power. If he does, he will be welcomed by them into the future reward. What power do these least ones have over the fate of the Steward?
At John 20:23, it reads, 
" If YOU forgive the sins of any persons, they stand forgiven to them; if YOU retain those of any persons, they stand retained.”
If the debtors do not forgive the Steward for his abuse of power over them, he will stand unforgiven....and unwelcomed into their future reward.


Soon the age of the "unrighteous riches" of this "system of things" will "fail" or expire (1John2:17). The Master is due to "take the stewardship away", along with all the authority and power it exercises over Christ's brothers (Luke16:3; 1Cor.15:24). The position that the lazy and proud (Luke16:3) household steward holds, will have to make way for the Holy City (Rev.21:2; Phil.3:21). Only those who proved humble, diligent, faithful, loving, and merciful will enter into these "everlasting dwelling places". Luke 16:9; 13:24; Matt.25:23)

Luke 16:11 continues:
"Therefore, if YOU have not proved yourselves faithful in connection with the unrighteous riches, who will entrust YOU with what is true?"

If a slave of Christ has not proved faithful and merciful with his temporary illusion of authority and power, Christ will not entrust him with the authority and power which is real, true, and everlasting.

Luke 16:12:
"And if YOU have not proved yourselves faithful in connection with what is another’s, who will give YOU what is for yourselves?"

This Steward has authority over God's household of anointed. As such, he is entrusted with all the provisions that the other slaves offer him. If he is not "faithful with what is another's" (the spiritual provisions coming from the other slaves), why would the Master give him his own spiritual provisions?

It will be just as Jesus said at Matt.13:11,12,14,15...

"In reply he said: “To YOU it is granted to understand the sacred secrets of the kingdom of the heavens, but to those people it is not granted. For whoever has, more will be given him and he will be made to abound; but whoever does not have, even what he has will be taken from him...

...‘By hearing, YOU will hear but by no means get the sense of it; and, looking, YOU will look but by no means see. For the heart of this people has grown unreceptive, and with their ears they have heard without response, and they have shut their eyes; that they might never see with their eyes and hear with their ears and get the sense of it with their hearts and turn back, and I heal them.’"

 Luke 16:13...
"No house servant can be a slave to two masters; for, either he will hate the one and love the other, or he will stick to the one and despise the other. YOU cannot be slaves to God and to riches.”...

According to the meaning of "unrighteous riches", this is true. We can not slave for love, justice, and mercy while we are slaving for prestige, privileges, domination, and power over others.

Luke 16:15...Consequently he said to them: "You are those who declare yourselves righteous before men, but God knows YOUR hearts; because what is lofty among men is a disgusting thing in God's sight."

It may be "lofty" to exercise prominence, power, privilege, prestige, and dominance over other brothers of Christ, but such a thing is disgusting in God's sight.

Jehovah makes His will for His Sons clear....

"I am giving YOU a new commandment, that YOU love one another; just as I have loved YOU, that YOU also love one another. By this all will know that YOU are my disciples, if YOU have love among yourselves.” John 13:33,34,35

"If anyone makes the statement: “I love God,” and yet is hating his brother, he is a liar. For he who does not love his brother, whom he has seen, cannot be loving God, whom he has not seen. And this commandment we have from him, that the one who loves God should be loving his brother also." 1John 4:20,21

"But YOU, do not YOU be called Rabbi, for one is YOUR teacher, whereas all YOU are brothers. Moreover, do not call anyone YOUR father on earth, for one is YOUR Father, the heavenly One. Neither be called ‘leaders,’ for YOUR Leader is one, the Christ."

So according to these scriptures at Luke 16:1-15,
If a Steward finds that he has not been humbly serving his fellow slaves...
("But the greatest one among YOU must be YOUR minister. Whoever exalts himself will be humbled, and whoever humbles himself will be exalted. Matt.23:11)
...what can he do?

Jesus advised him how to show "practical wisdom", at Luke 16:1-15.

The Wasteful Steward:
Over God's household, wasting the spiritual provisions entrusted to him. Those who have been given spiritual provisions by the Master are indebted to the Master. These provisions must be handed over to the Steward and put to use by him. The wasteful, wicked steward refuses and punishes those seeking to be faithful. (Matt.24:48,49,50,51)

the account of the stewardship:
the position of administrative director over the anointed household of God. 1Cor.12:28:
"And God has set the respective ones in the congregation, first, apostles; second, prophets; third, teachers; then powerful works; then gifts of healings; helpful services, abilities to direct,”
(This position of directorship is not the same as apostle, prophet, etc.) 1Cor.12:4,7,8,10,11,14,15,20,21,25,27

(note: while the scriptures say that tongues will "cease", the other gifts are said to be "done away with". This is relevant, since the Greek for "done away with" means, "made without effect". This does not mean that they have ceased. It means that all prophecy will eventually lose it's effect. That will be true when all prophecy is finally fulfilled. "Knowledge" is also said to be "done away with" or made without effect. That does not mean that knowledge will cease. No, but it also will be made ineffectual when it advances (as when we compare "milk" to "meat".) Therefore, the doctrine that proposes that prophecy no longer occurs is error. Acts 2:17,18,19,20; Rev.11:3; and Num.12:6 cannot be nullified.
(see article, Has Prophecy "Ceased"? )

the house: God's anointed household (Eph.2:19)

dig: cultivate the ground to sow seed (Luke 8:11)

ashamed to beg, ask, implore: too proud to allow others to share the work of providing spiritual food. Yet they themselves avoid the work (Luke16:3; Prov.20:4; Matt.23:13; Eze.44:8; Rev.13:15,12). They are also too proud to worry about the reconciliation of other anointed slaves with God, (Matt.9:37,38; 2Cor.5:20) or their brothers being able to fulfill their God-assigned responsibilities (1Cor.12:18; Eph.4:11) thereby discharging their debts (Luke12:48).

the debtors: those whom the Steward is over. The Master's slaves who owe him a return on his provisions (Luke17:10).

practical wisdom: Proverbs 3:21; 2:6  Thinking ability is based on Jehovah's advice, and making decisions with input from all anointed prophets and teachers (Prov.11:14; 15:22). Working in isolation will result in the selfish pursuit of more unrighteous riches (Prov.18:1). It is according to practical wisdom to protect your own interests and welfare. In this, the  "sons of light" lack "practical" wisdom (Luke16:8; Rev.12:11), because rather than think of their standing in this world (1John2:17; Phil.3:8; Matt.6:33; 1Cor.7:31; Rev.12:11), they are focused on the kingdom.

sons of this system of things: Anointed rulers previous to the Kingdom rule (Luke16:8; Rev.8:10,11; 13:11; 17:1; 18:4,24; Matt.23:35,37; Rev.11:8)...whose power will end (Matt.24:3).

generation: all anointed (Luke21:32).

sons of light: those who have no interest in position or a "ruling" type of stewardship over God's household. Their only concern is in pleasing the Master and promoting his interests of truth. They wish to work under a loving spirit of cooperation and mutual respect.(1Thess.5:5) How these are treated, will determine how others are judged (John 20:23; Matt.25:40,46).

friends for yourselves: favor with other anointed, who may later prove to judge those who had exalted themselves (Matt.23:12; John 20:23).

unrighteous riches: power and authority over the anointed household of God (1Cor.4:8; Mark10:42,43,44).

when such fail: the end of this religious system, which will make way for the Kingdom administration of Eph.1:10 and Rev.21:2. (2Pet.3:11; Matt.24:2,3).

they may receive you: that the faithful anointed may welcome the Steward into the "tent of God" (Rev.22:14; 2Pet.1:11; 1Tim.6:17) to which the faithful ones belong; rather than complaining to the Master for justice (Luke18:7; Matt.24:22; Luke21:28; Rev.6:10). 
[note: the "friends" that the steward stands to gain by cancelling debt, is not the Master (Jesus and Jehovah, for these are not indebted to the Steward); but the one's whose debt the steward cancels--the other slaves.] 
(So this is not talking about making friends with Jehovah by donating money to the WT.)

everlasting dwelling places: the Kingdom inheritance that lasts forever. (Matt.25:34)

entrust you with what is true: all Christ's belongings that he shares eternally with the sealed anointed. This includes the crystal clear river of truth that will flow in the Kingdom (Rev.22:1) from the throne of God. (1Cor.13:10)

faithful with another's: trustworthy handling of the provisions given other anointed from Christ. (John13:13,14; Phil.2:3; 1Cor.4:7)

riches: rulership (1Cor.4:8)

what is lofty among men is disgusting in God's sight: 
ruling with a sense of superiority over your brothers before the Kingdom arrives is against the will of Christ and Jehovah (Phil.2:3,21). Those that take their rule prematurely and oppress their fellow slaves will be viewed as wicked/disgusting, by the returning Master. (Matt.24:15)

At 1Cor.4:8 it reads:
"YOU men already have YOUR fill, do YOU? YOU are rich already, are YOU? (unrighteous riches) YOU have begun ruling as kings without us, have YOU?"

Hopefully, when you now read Luke 16:1-15, you will glean more understanding and benefit. I hope so. If you do, it will be through the blessing of Holy Spirit toward us all.

Thank you for your question,


  1. Thank you, Pearl, for a fantastic explanation about the Steward! Wow!
    If I may suggest, let's separate the “little flock” from the “other sheep” under just this blog only, okay? How can this help these 2 groups know who they are and where they stand in reference to Jesus’ arrival/return? How may the “other sheep” prepare to be of service to Jehovah’s “little flock” when times get tough? If possible, please stay within this well-written blog. If it's not possible, I look forward to when time may permit you to further explain. Thank you again Pearl, and for all the blogs you’ve written so far. I look forward to reading more of them soon!

  2. Hello Jehuzeal,
    Perhaps I can retrace the symbol list that Jesus used, and apply them to the 2 groups. A, will be for the Anointed, UA, will be for un-anointed. If this attempt does not cover what you request, just let me know.
    The Wasteful Steward:
    A: Do not let the failings of the wasteful Steward be your excuse for not feeding Christ's sheep.
    UA:Obey Christ by identifying the faithful and unfaithful anointed. Realize that you may not be receiving the "proper food at the proper time" from the source you are using. Do not let men mediate your relationship with Jehovah. Christ is the only mediator between God and men. Therefore, use scripture to determine a safe source of spiritual food. Have faith that upon Christ's return, the wasteful steward will be removed. Be cautious to obey God as ruler, rather than men.

    Account of the Stewardship:
    A&UA: Know that Jehovah promised to pour out his spirit in our time, including prophesying. This may require that you feed "outside the box" of those who deny this reality.

    The Debtors:
    Know that there are other anointed who have provisions and the desire to meet the needs of the sheep. Know why they are being prevented.

    When Such Fail:
    Know that God's house during this system will be done away with. There will be a new heavens and earth, filled with righteousness. Look ahead to the promises of God, and not to the glory of men.

    How may Unanointed support the least of Christ's brothers?
    At Matt.25:31-46, Jesus spoke of this. These are both literal and symbolic ways to show love to them. What does it mean to symbolically feed Christ's brothers?
    Jesus said, "My food is for me to do the will of him who sent me, and to finish his work". Therefore, just allowing the faithful anointed to do Jehovah's will is sustaining to them. We see that the wasteful steward does not let the anointed do God's will for them. The steward therefore, lets the other anointed go hungry. By feeding on and benefiting from the provisions of faithful anointed, you encourage and sustain them when they know they are helping others.

    Also critical for survival through Jehovah's War, Unanointed need to resist the peer pressure to ostracize and persecute Christ's brothers. The time is coming when those who are worshiping the powerful leaders (Steward) over God's house, will be mislead into doing this. The sealed anointed will be labeled as apostate, and will suffer this persecution at the hands of those proving unfaithful. All those who have a part and agree with this unjust treatment, will suffer Jehovah's retribution. Those who remembered to be loving, kind, and just toward those obeying God, will be rewarded.

  3. So the Un-anointed can also be sheep who:

    1. Continue to learn/study, knowing exactly what’s going on in God’s house.

    2. Have volunteered to leave but will “step up to the plate” to protect Jesus’ brothers in the future.

    3. Have been kicked out because they spoke up to the unfaithful Steward too soon.

    4. Billions that know nothing about the Kingdom.

    Is all the above correct?

    I also wrote a comment - actually a question - at your profile listed under, “Who are anointed?”

    Thank you!

  4. I would not assume that Jehovah views all those included in your list as "sheep". I would also not conclude that all those in your list are not "sheep".
    The criteria that Jesus uses to determine if one is a sheep or a goat, is given at that scripture I cited at Matt.ch.25.

  5. Un-anointed are people who have not been selected and anointed by Jehovah God. The un-anointed I refer to are those who are in a position to have an effect on an anointed one. Yet, all people from both groups, can have an effect. The anointed will also be judged based on how they treat one another. The same standard at Matt.25, applies to them also.

  6. Hi Pearl:

    As an anointed one who has been disfellowshipped because he does not beleive in the teaching that Christ examined and found the group in 1918/1918 as the "faithful and discreet slave' and apointed over all of his belongings - I am looking forward to the time when Christ will reveal his true sons.
    Romans 8:19

    please contact me at:
    Your brother in Christ

  7. Oh I am so pained to hear of your persecution and "death". The things you did go well with you! (Rev.14:13; 6:9-11). I know that I am not far behind you in this grief. Amen Lord Jesus, Come!
    I have emailed you,